Electric and Hybrid Vehicles ( Free PDF )

Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market


  • Economic and ecological comparison Comparison of traditional options and alternativeso Logino Analysis
  • Technical and economic parameters
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Standard and general standards Answers and discussions Results
  • Thanksgiving
  • Names
  • Greek symbols
  • Registration
  • Description
  • stage battery life, fuel cell and plug-in hybrid Logion Battery-electric life costs Introduction
  • BEV details
  • Costs of BEV
  • BEV battery
  • Electric motor and motor control for BEV
  • BEV equipment system
  • Operation and maintenance costs
  • Fuel consumption for BEVs
  • BEV power consumption
  • Electric fuel price
  • BEV compliance awards
  • Discuss BEV rate
  • Lifetime cost of a plug-in hybrid
  • Introduction
  • PHEV Explained
  • Cost of components
  • Summary
  • Battery
  • Electrical and motor control
  • Engine, transmission system and transmission
  • Energy consumption
  • Operation and maintenance costs
  • Summary
  • Maintenance and repair costs
  • Other non-energy costs
  • Energy costs
  • Summary
  • PHEV power consumption
  • Electricity price is the annual electricity price.
  • PHEV external charging
  • Discussion of PHEV rate
  • Life cycle costs of fuel cell vehicles
  • Introduction
  • Cost of components
  • Summary
  • Fuel system
  • Hydrogen storage system
  • Operation and maintenance costs
  • Maintenance and repair costs
  • Other non-energy costs
  • Energy costs
  • Fuel efficiency of FCEVs
  • Fuel price
  • External charges for FCEVs
  • Discuss FCEV cost estimates
  • Thanksgiving Speech


Over the last 10-15 years, people have become familiar with vehicles powered not only by internal combustion engines (using gasoline, diesel or gas) but also by electric motors. These electric vehicles (HEVs) offer better fuel economy and lower emissions, but this is the first long road that will hopefully end with zero-emission electric vehicles (EVs) enabling long-distance travel. The first cars produced at the turn of the century were electric and powered by lead-acid batteries, but they were soon abandoned due to poor battery performance and the availability of cheap fossil fuels. However, many things have changed over the years; High fuel costs and environmental degradation have caused people to rethink battery use. On the other hand, their performance has increased since the early 1990s.Nickel-metal hydride (almost entirely used by the end of 2009, e.g. G. in the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight) and the upcoming Li-ion battery (currently used in the latest electric vehicles like the Nissan Leaf and Mitsubishi i-MiEV) have impressive power and efficiency. This book comprehensively discusses the performance, cost, safety, and sustainability of HEVs and battery alternatives for EVs (especially in Chapters 8 and 13-19). There is also focus on cell systems, as research in this area is more active than ever and prototypes of hydrogen cell cars are already in circulation (Honda FCX Clarity and GM Hydrogen4, for example), but their costs keep the business at a low level. distance. front (chapters 9-12). This book, especially in the first chapter, compares alternative vehicles of different powers in terms of lifespan, fuel consumption and environmental impact. Greenhouse gas emissions have taken a big hit. How much will it generally cost to bring domestic vehicles to the market? The answer to this question must be based on a modeling assumption that takes into account factors such as the share of electricity from renewable sources and the level of CO2 that can be allowed (essentially as done in Chapters 4 and 21). However, according to some studies, many drivers do not seem to be concerned about environmental issues, the car’s performance and The’s prices. The government will have a large share. Adequate charging infrastructure is also important for the widespread use of battery and cell vehicles, as it can contribute to overcoming the so-called ‘level stress’. Battery charging methods are outlined in Chapter 20, and hydrogen stations are described in Chapter 12. Finally, Chapter 22 discusses the state-of-the-art in hybrid electric vehicles (as of early 2010) with the powertrain solutions adopted by major automakers. Among the major industries that must adapt and change to meet today’s demands for sustainable growth, the automotive industry is one of the most important. One of the most common requirements for environmentally friendly vehicle designs is that they emit little or no emissions during use. The vehicle design requires improvements in the propulsion system, fuel efficiency and energy conversion technology, among other development efforts. Possibilities of using different fuels to power vehicles, with an emphasis on synthetic fuels (e.g. References [1-3). When analyzing transportation and fuel systems, all stages of life need to be considered, from the extraction of natural resources to the production of products and the conversion of energy stored in the vehicle into energy used in moving the vehicle and other activities. (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.)). All stages of a vehicle’s life cycle prior to refueling generally have a positive impact on the environment. Furthermore, the production and end-of-life stages of a vehicle play an important role in comparing the life cycle impacts of an oil spill. Cost-effectiveness is also an important factor contributing to the development of the transportation sector and the environment. This section expands and updates the methodology of Grabovski et al. [1] examines the parameters of vehicle life cycle performance and usage based on real cost figures and makes a comparison of four types of motor vehicles. In this analysis, we consider two types of vehicles, both of which have zero emissions during fuel consumption (during vehicle operation). One uses hydrogen as fuel in an internal combustion engine (ICE), and the second uses ammonia as a hydrogen source to power the internal combustion engine. Therefore the tools analyzed here are as follows: conventional gasoline vehicles (petrol and internal combustion engine),hybrid vehicles (petrol, petrol and large rechargeable batteries), electric vehicles (high voltage battery and electric motor/generator), hydrogen cell vehicles (high density hydrogen fuel cell, fuel cell, electric), hydrogen combustion vehicles (high pressure hydrogen fuel and ICE),cars run on ammonia (ammonia fuel tank, thermostatic decomposition and separation of ammonia to produce pure hydrogen, internal combustion engine powered hydrogen).The conceptual development put forward in this section, which includes economic and environmental criteria for comparing sustainable vehicles, is expected to be useful in the development of light, economical and environmentally friendly modern vehicles.

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