## Contents

- Introduction
- Types of Material Failure
- Design and Materials Selection
- Technological Challenge
- Economic Importance of Fracture
- Structure and Deformation in Materials
- Introduction
- Bonding in Solids
- Structure in Crystalline Materials
- Elastic Deformation and Theoretical Strength
- Inelastic Deformation
- A Survey of Engineering Materials
- Introduction
- Alloying and Processing of Metals
- Irons and Steels
- Nonferrous Metals
- Polymers
- Ceramics and Glasses
- Composite Materials
- Materials Selection for Engineering Components
- Mechanical Testing: Tension Test and Other Basic Tests
- Introduction
- Introduction to Tension Test
- Engineering Stress–Strain Properties
- Trends in Tensile Behavior
- True Stress–Strain Interpretation of Tension Test
- Compression Test
- Hardness Tests
- Notch-Impact Tests
- Bending and Torsion Tests
- Stress–Strain Relationships and Behavior
- Introduction
- Models for Deformation Behavior
- Elastic Deformation
- Anisotropic Materials
- Review of Complex and Principal States of Stress and Strain
- Introduction
- Plane Stress
- Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress
- Three-Dimensional States of Stress
- Stresses on the Octahedral Planes
- Complex States of Strain
- Yielding and Fracture under Combined Stresses
- Introduction
- General Form of Failure Criteria
- Maximum Normal Stress Fracture Criterion
- Maximum Shear Stress Yield Criterion
- Octahedral Shear Stress Yield Criterion
- Discussion of the Basic Failure Criteria
- Coulomb–Mohr Fracture Criterion
- Modiﬁed Mohr Fracture Criterion
- Additional Comments on Failure Criteria
- Introduction
- Preliminary Discussion
- Mathematical Concepts
- Application of K to Design and Analysis
- Additional Topics on Application of K
- Fracture Toughness Values and Trends
- Plastic Zone Size, and Plasticity Limitations on LEFM
- Discussion of Fracture Toughness Testing
- Extensions of Fracture Mechanics Beyond Linear Elasticity
- Fatigue of Materials: Introduction and Stress-Based Approach
- Stress-Based Approach to Fatigue: Notched Members
- Fatigue Crack Growth
- Plastic Deformation Behavior and Models for Materials
- Stress–Strain Analysis of Plastically Deforming Members
- Strain-Based Approach to Fatigue
- Time-Dependent Behavior: Creep and Damping
- Review of Selected Topics from Mechanics of Materials
- Statistical Variation in Materials Properties
- ANSWERS FOR SELECTED PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS
- BIBLIOGRAPHY
- INDEX

## preface

The design of safe, reliable and economical machines, vehicles and systems requires the efficient use of materials and the avoidance of structural defects. It is therefore appropriate for an undergraduate degree to study the mechanical behavior of materials, particularly deformation, fracture and fatigue.

This book can be used as an undergraduate or graduate textbook on the behavior of materials mechanics, or, with emphasis on the following chapters, as a first-level text for graduate students. Coverage includes traditional topics in the field, such as materials testing, yielding and plasticity, stress-induced fatigue analysis and creep. New methods of comparative fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis are also discussed and, in fact, are covered in detail. For practicing engineers with a bachelor’s degree, this book provides a comprehensive resource for the course taught.

The emphasis on analytical and predictive methods is beneficial to the machine designer in preventing structural failures. This process is performed in mechanical engineering and the material’s resistance to fracture is largely measured by properties such as yield strength, fracture toughness, and shear during fatigue or impacts. Intelligent use of resources requires an understanding of how data exists so that its limitations and meanings are clear. Therefore, before discussing analytical and predictive methods, tests of devices used in different fields are discussed. In many areas, technology for metals is more advanced than for metals. However, information and examples for non-metals, such as polymers and ceramics, are included where appropriate. More anisotropic materials, such as reinforced fiber composites, are also considered, but to a lesser extent. No detailed treatment of complex materials is attempted here.

The remainder of the preface reflects the changes made in this new document. The following suggestions are intended to assist users of this book, including students, teachers, and practicing engineers.

WHAT’S NEW IN THIS ELECTION?

This fourth edition shows an improvement over the third book and is generally modern. The areas focused on in the review are: questions and end-of-chapter questions were significantly updated, 35% of which were new or changed prompts, bringing the total number up by 54 to 659. At least 33% of the questions and queries in each section are new or changed, and these updates focus on the main topic on which teachers can focus more.

What’s new in this edition: Approximately half of the questions and problems that require numerical values or the development of new equations are answered at the end of the book.

The endpoint directory has been reorganized and updated to include the latest releases, including source archives.

The discussion of S-N curve equations in Chapter 10 has been updated and updated to reflect changes in commonly used literature.

An example problem on the stress-strain curve from Chapter 12. Also, in chapter 12 the discussion of stress is more complex and a new example is added.

Updated and updated article in Chapter 14 on the effects of stress on mental health.

The chapter on shear flow in pile problems has been moved to Chapter 15, where it can be discussed within the scope of the temperature term.

REQUEST Fundamental mechanics of materials, also called strength of materials or mechanics of flexible bodies, provides an introduction to the analysis of stresses and strains in structural components such as beams and trusses for structural behavior. Completion of such regular courses (usually the second year) is an important requirement for the treatment offered here. Some useful information and practical resources in this chapter can be found in Appendix A, along with a comprehensive review of plastic analysis.

Many engineering courses include introductory science courses (again, usually in the second year), including crystallinity and crystallinity, the nature of dislocations and other defects, transformation processes, materials processing, and maintenance systems. Prior exposure to this unit of study is also necessary. However, since the requirements may be missing, the first breakdown is given in parts 2 and 3. Main color numbers are also needed. Some examples and problems for students include basic statistical analysis such as linear least squares regression, equation solving, and numerical integration. Therefore, some background knowledge in these areas is useful, such as the ability to program on a personal computer and perform statistical analysis. The required statistical analysis is described in various introductory books on the subject, such as Chopra (2010), which contains entries in the basic index.

WORKS AND REFERENCES At the end of each chapter is a reference list indicating sources of additional reading and information. These lists are categorized into areas such as general information, resource materials, and useful books. When a book is cited in this bibliography, the first author’s name and year of publication are given, allowing the reference to be found quickly in the index at the end of the chapter.

When specific information or images from other publications are used, these sources are identified by indented information such as [Richards 61] or [ASM 88] and two numbers indicating the year of publication. All such bibliographic material is included in a single column at the end of the book.

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