Basic Statistics ( Free PDF )

A Primer for the Biomedical Sciences 4th Ed


  • Initial Steps
  • Reasons for Studying Biostatistics
  • Initial Steps in Designing a Biomedical Study
  • Common Types of Biomedical Studies
  • Populations and Samples
  • Basic Concepts
  • Definitions of Types of Samples
  • Methods of Selecting Simple Random Samples
  • Application of Sampling Methods in Biomedical Studies
  • Collecting and Entering Data
  • Initial Steps
  • Data Entry
  • Screening the Data
  • Code Book
  • Frequency Tables and Their Graphs
  • Numerical Methods of Organizing Data
  • Graphs
  • Measures of Location and Variability
  • Measures of Location
  • Measures of Variability
  • Sampling Properties of the Mean and Variance
  • Considerations in Selecting Appropriate Statistics
  • A Common Graphical Method for Displaying Statistics
  • The Normal Distribution
  • Properties of the Normal Distribution
  • Areas Under the Normal Curve
  • Importance of the Normal Distribution
  • Examining Data for Normality
  • Transformations
  • Estimation of Population Means: Confidence Intervals
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Sample Size Needed for a Desired Confidence Interval
  • The t Distribution
  • Confidence Interval for the Mean Using the t Distribution
  • Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Unpaired Data
  • Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Paired Comparison
  • Tests of Hypotheses on Population Means
  • Tests of Hypotheses for a Single Mean
  • Tests for Equality of Means: Unpaired Data
  • Testing for Equality of Means: Paired Data
  • Concepts Used in Statistical Testing
  • Sample Size
  • Confidence Intervals Versus Tests
  • Correcting for Multiple Testing
  • Reporting the Results
  • Variances: Estimation and Tests
  • Point Estimates for Variances and Standard Deviations
  • Testing Whether Two Variances Are Equal: F Test
  • Approximate t Test
  • Other Tests
  • Categorical Data: Proportions
  • Categorical Data: Analysis of Two-Way Frequency Tables
  • Regression and Correlations
  • Nonparametric Statistics
  • Introduction to Survival Analysis
  • Bibliography
  • Index


This book is designed as a semester textbook in biostatistics for students or researchers in the field of biology. We have also included resources that will be useful for physicians, public health professionals and nurses who participate in research projects and want to not only understand the basic principles of biostatistics but also apply them in their research.

Number level was kept consciously. We have provided formulas and examples so the reader can see how to perform the calculations, as this is important for understanding the results. Information is given about statistical programs that create graphs and charts for use in research projects.

There are two types of units, based on the dual purpose of teaching basic principles and incorporating important tools for the effective execution of research projects. One type focuses on basic statistical techniques commonly used in biological and public health research. This includes a new section emphasizing the use of specific tests. The second type, which includes elements useful for carrying out research projects, is presented in Chapters 1 and 3. In Chapter 1, we will present the first steps in designing a biological survey and describe common types of biological surveys. Chapter 3 is a new chapter that was not in the previous book. It provides the first steps in planning a biological or public health study, including choosing what data to collect, how to collect it, and how to test data collection methods. A brief introduction to data entry and presentation is also provided. The remaining chapters focus on statistical techniques commonly used in biological and public health research.

You will find a short list of references at the end of each chapter. The trick here is to include at least one link containing the content mentioned in the title, as well as links containing additional information.

For the teacher interested in covering a text over a semester or quarter, please note that the chapters are short. Explanations for tests where population differences are known can be summarized and the use of confidence limits for differences between two means can be ignored. Neither function is available in most computer programs. The survival analysis major may not be as useful to public health students as it is to medical researchers. The fourth edition benefited from the work of Amy Hendrickson ( in the proofreading and editing of the first chapters and the final edition of the book.I am sorry to inform you that Jean Dunn passed away in January 2008. I still love his book because he wrote the first two essays, and his clarity and writing make this a good choice for interested readers. Understand

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