Drip and sprinkler irrigation ( Free PDF )


  • Introduction
  • History and development
  • Components of the irrigation system
  • Drip system type
  • Good and bad
  • Overview of Futuristic Drip Irrigation Systems in India Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Hydraulics of the flow regime
  • Reynolds number
  • Darcy-Weisbach equation
  • William the Hazan
  • Hydraulic plant suppliers
  • Change supplier
  • Irrigation and productivity
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Drawing techniques
  • Plants need water
  • Distribution and withdrawal of water in the soil
  • Selection of number of suppliers per facility
  • System capabilities
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Network diagram
  • Hydraulic fluid/pressure loss in lines
  • Graphic design
  • Examples of agricultural drip systems
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Providers
  • Introduction
  • Provider types Questions and answers
  • Fertilization
  • Introduction
  • Fertilizer
  • Pump system
  • Fertilizer application rate
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Low-cost discount system
  • Channel
  • Hydration system performance
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Irrigation
  • History of irrigation
  • Advantages and limitations of irrigation 8. 3 Location of irrigation in India
  • Types of sprinkler systems and components
  • Diagram of irrigation system
  • Questions and Answers
  • Description
  • Annex H: Loss of title due to irrigation list


Water is now becoming a valuable commodity. The demand for irrigation water has increased many times over the years to create more irrigation facilities, but also to increase crop production and provide food and fiber to our growing population. If more area is irrigated without proper management, this can cause stress on water resources and relative success in production and productivity. Micro irrigation means irrigation and drip irrigation, and this by far the best irrigation system. Micro irrigation has many advantages over conventional irrigation. However, using the method effectively requires knowledge and skill.

This Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation book is designed as a textbook on irrigation methods and practices for agricultural science students and irrigation professionals and workers. In addition to standard and short problems, the book contains good numerical examples and assignments to inform students about the requirements, challenges and possible solutions in the study process. Each chapter of the book has multiple choice questions to help students crack competitive exams.

The author is grateful to the Indian National Committee for Irrigation and Irrigation (INCID), Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. A request for financial assistance from India for carrying out research studies whose results appear to be relevant is included in this book. The author gratefully acknowledges the support of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya and all my esteemed colleagues who encouraged me to continue. I would like to thank and appreciate the constant persuasion efforts of my students, but nothing can be seen. The author would like to thank the authors and researchers of the various books, publications, monographs and published and unpublished articles from which the contents of this book are excerpted. Every effort is made to identify the source of the information. If something goes wrong it is not allowed and will be fixed if mentioned or pointed out. I would like to thank NIPA for funding the publication of this book. Irrigation is an effective method of applying an amount of water under the crop equal to the plant’s application rate, thereby reducing natural water losses such as percolation, runoff, and soil erosion. It is a method of gradually applying water to the surface, above or below the ground surface, underground, by sprinkler and spray or impact system. Fertilizer can also be applied by drip irrigation method. Sprayers or applicators will be placed close to the plants and used to spray water in the form of drops, small streams or small sprays. In the drip system, water is applied in all directions to the soil outside the source, starting from the development point of the source. Effective irrigation involves low rate, low pressure, long-term application, and long-term retention of water in the root zone. Irrigation is also called local irrigation, irrigation, daily stream irrigation, daily irrigation, irrigation, multi-year irrigation and micro irrigation. Its unique name is gaining popularity everywhere due to the preference of the people of that region. The International Commission on Irrigation and Irrigation (ICID) suggested the term irrigation, while the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) preferred the term irrigation. It is said that irrigation in India isdrops.1. 2 History and development Surface area, gravity and history of irrigation BC. It may date back to 6000 BC. The oldest civilizations on the banks of the Nile, Kaplan, Euphrates, Indus and Yellow Rivers. Irrigation is considered a new and improved method of irrigation. In the 1860s, experiments were carried out in Germany using clay pipes connected to underground points where the basic idea of ​​irrigation could be followed.

The was replaced by wire mesh in the 1920s. Some activity in Colorado followed in 1913. In the 1930s, irrigation began in Australia using 5 cm galvanized steel pipes with triangular holes. In the early 1940s, an Israeli engineer named Simcha Blass noticed that a large tree near a broken tap was growing faster than other trees in the area that did not have ample tap water. This research gave him the idea of ​​a drip irrigation system that would use very little water. He eventually designed and patented an irrigation system. Irrigation in Denmark began after World War II with the installation of large plastic pipes. The practice was later adopted in England. Drip irrigation achieved great success in Israel’s Negev and Arava deserts in the early 1960s. It was later shown in the United States and quickly became popular. In 1969 modern irrigation systems were sold commercially outside Israel. They are mainly located in the USA, Australia and Mexico, as well as in Israel, Canada, Cyprus, France, Iran, New Zealand, Great Britain, Greece and India. The area under drip irrigation increased from just 40 hectares in 1960 to 54,600 hectares in 1975. It increased to 412,760 hectares in 1981 and to 1784,846 hectares in 1991.A global survey conducted by the International Committee on Irrigation and Irrigation (ICID), Micro Irrigation, reported that 35 countries in the world were engaged in irrigation in 1991. The top 606,000,000 hectares were in the United States, and the bottom 30 hectares were in Ecuador. India ranked seventh with 70,859 hectares.

Indian Irrigation in India was practiced in India using indigenous methods such as bamboo pipes, perforated clay pipes and jar/bowl irrigation. Bamboo, made into long pipes of various diameters (50-100 cm), is used by tribal farmers of Meghalaya to make pipes for drip irrigation of betel, pepper and areca plants. The source of water is mountain streams, which are sent to the mountain by the discharge rate.

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